innovation, economic growth, subversive innovations, epoch-making innovations, research and development.


The article considers the main patterns and signs of economic growth. One of the most important sources of economic growth is a breakthrough in the evolutionary development of science, which creates the potential for the development of technology. Modern models of economic growth should include an innovative component. In the theory of economic growth, technological change is considered as one of the key factors influencing productivity, and therefore the rate of economic growth in general. The main patterns associated with economic growth are provided by increasing the productivity of capital and labor, the causes of which are technological change, innovation. The main signs of economic growth are: technical progress; institutional, behavioral and ideological changes that contribute to the realization of the growth potential inherent in new technology; constant growth of the national product.

It was found that the innovative breakthrough is based on scientific and technological progress, and science, education, technology, new knowledge have become the engine of economic growth in all developed countries. The stages of evolutionary development of research and development are considered, in particular, the first stage is associated with the emergence of laboratories, the first R&D units in large companies; the second stage is associated with the rapid development of science-intensive scientific disciplines; the third stage is based on the marketing approach and the concept of strategic planning; within the fourth stage, customer needs and technical capabilities are being developed simultaneously.

The systematization of innovations is analyzed. The greatest importance was given to such a feature as the degree of radical innovation. On this basis, you can systematize innovations in different ways: radical and modifying; epochal, which occur every few centuries and radically change the face of society; subversive and supportive. The latter approach is the most adequate from the point of view of business: what to beware of business and how to behave in the case of an innovation.